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(Redirected from SARMS)
Selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands. (The name follows the terminology currently used for similar molecules targeting the estrogen receptor, "selective estrogen receptor modulators," such as Tamoxifen a Schedule 1 Prescription, restricted, and pharmacy-only medicines in New Zealand.) They are intended to have the same kind of effects as androgenic drugs like anabolic steroids but be much more selective in their action, allowing them to be used for many more clinical indications than the relatively limited legitimate uses that anabolic steroids are currently approved for.Selectivity in men
For example, if the target is bone growth in elderly men with osteopenia or osteoporosis, but with no overt signs of hypogonadism, a SARM targeting bone and muscle tissue but with lesser activity on the prostate or testes would be more desirable.
Selectivity in women
A SARM for women would ideally stimulate bone retention, or libido and other sexual function that androgens can influence, without negative side-effects such as development of male gender characteristics (virilization), increased LDL/HDL ratios, liver dysfunction, and so forth.
Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are naturally occurring biological molecules. They are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc. A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers, alongside nucleic acids, oligo- and polysaccharides, etc.
Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors, or to another protein or other macromolecule (DNA, RNA, etc.), or to complex macromolecular assemblies. Finally, while aspects of the techniques that apply to peptides versus polypeptides and proteins differ (i.e., in the specifics of electrophoresis, chromatography, etc.), the size boundaries that distinguish peptides from polypeptides and proteins are not absolute: long peptides such as amyloid beta have been referred to as proteins, and smaller proteins like insulin have been considered peptides.
Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues" due to the release of either a hydrogen ion from the amine end or a hydroxyl ion from the carboxyl end, or both, as a water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. All peptides except cyclic peptides have an N-terminal and C-terminal residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the tetrapeptide in the image). Info from wikipedia
Peptides: Sport drug stance reversed
By Steve Deane
5:30 AM Monday Apr 29, 201
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